nigerian civil war: causes and effects pdf

The Federal, Government fought the war to maintain the corporate, in creating an independent state called ‘Biafra’ carved out, As stated earlier in the course of this analys, nationhood and self-determination… it concerned outside, underscores this assertion. Its pervasive operation and hapless response of the security and other governmental agents portend a recurring inherent danger in the Nigerian state. Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. The data of measuring noise for 24 hours and less than 24 hours were compared to suggest appropriate measuring time on the movement measuring points. '\�az>K,�K9�� The Nigerian Civil War, commonly known as the Biafran War (6 July 1967 – 15 January 1970), was a war fought between the government of Nigeria and the sessionist of Biafra. This study is a post-mortem examination of the causes and impact of the Nigerian civil war of 1967–1970. Abstract-Ethnic consideration has been comprehensively substantiated as a major trait in determining the political sustainability in Nigeria. 4 0 obj In Section 2 we address the formation of the Nigerian state, focusing on the origins of dominant antithetical forces, struggles and their consequences over four distinct periods leading up to the civil war. In the last decade, critics of structural theories have argued for the need to incorporate leadership, ideology, and processes of identification with revolutionary movements as key elements in the production of revolution. I position literary texts as my canvas in engaging with Biafra and Biafranness due to the poignant way fictional narratives represent private suffering. However, adequate future pre-hostility preparation time will probably be the exception rather than the rule. iv ��3A��1�@U�!39�͎#�1a�U��`i������VIpM��F� ����,��ׯ����"+}��QU��N!Sh�[�i[Uw�P.�H ���gہ�լX������#��ԸPe���y��A�������>�B��Q ������\�K]�o�!#�� ������VYA�����FT(�N��_��иQ頻�ٸ, '�i���XS�p�����#�B:� S�C�hp''�+s\O�7L�� This has become an impossible dream however due to a myriad of challenges. Causes Involvement B. Malakand. In achieving this aim, the paper necessarily explores the theory of revolution and at the same time carries-out a comparative analysis of civil wars that later morphed into revolutions within the international political system. Colonel Odumegwu Ojukwu (1933–2011) from 6 July 1967 to 15 January 1970. Using the qualitative research methodology and a multi- and trans-disciplinary approach, this work will show that what is needed to bring insurgency and terrorism to an end in the country is a grand strategy. The most significant of these are the challenges of terrorism and insurgency. More importantly, the voices that come to light within this mode of reading speak of excess and absences in a way that calls attention to an unfinished business of mourning and healing. Given enough time before hostilities begin, the current system does not require major changes. The nigerian civil war also known as the biafran war and the nigerian biafran war was a civil war in nigeria fought between the government of nigeria and the secessionist state of biafra from 6 july 1967 to 15 january 1970. The Hausas and Igbos still walk on eggs around each other, the Nigerian civil war has made tribalism or ethnic rivalry chewed deeper still. The Data has been analyzed by applying t-test and results showed mean difference in academic motivation of displaced students of Malakand and Swat universities. This paper will not only correct the misrepresentation, it will also establish the theoretical line that separate a revolution from a coup d’état. Nigeria Civil War has begun. ��H�/>%�K�U��R�rB k��v�5�F|O�su��/u�}�|zuU�, ��|���}��S��bV�>K�'��Üذ7~��OF_�\i׮),����bZ1=]��%���»�V�΅_�H�h�����>W�6,�.ܿ(�5h#S�2�Շ�gaW�[ya��7�V�D��}�+���tC� ��ѱK�"�4k�����I��P\���ǭy�1yW����xM0�,c]�H��5f-��{ǂs�"��� ����Ѕ�%��c�|vOq-bAWE�J�rr�~�kBo�Ǘ� �]�s�>�^�~��!a��0 F�y��*"y�n��� Consequently, this framing has birthed a robust following among Igbo youths who desperately seek an alternative to the ‘unfriendly’ Nigerian space. Wartime Biafran society is framed as a utopia where everyone belonged and felt safe. Historically, the British overlord in 1914 saw forceful nuptials as a political necessity to safeguard and consolidate divergence ethnic pluralism, hypothesizing the dawn of ethnic consciousness in Nigerian political life. The study provides comprehensive critiques of ethnic nationalism in military governance which escorted the major ceaseless coup d'états and civil war in Nigeria. Causes of the Nigerian Civil War The plethora of events, actions and perilous inertia that characterised the national scene between January 1966 and July 1967 prompted the catastrophic Nigerian Civil War. Ojukwu DID NOT cause the civil war. Yet significant challenges to the theory of revolutions—such as extending the range of cases analyzed, clarifying the grounds of peasant behavior, and tying theoretical analysis to demographic data—still remain. The nigerian civil war is commonly referred to as the biafran war. is study is designed as a knowledge building e ort to analyze the various elements and dynamics �T��;�l�qM� �q��1�S��)�67�>#)��T(��t�5�59�&H�!�-�7�ғ��Q��&lRb_���`ܝ� 9dP/��FV��R+-�Qg�O�(5�2Pi�%M��5M,���"�,�$u� &���y��C�$����L(��|�1�w�Q. Remote Cause "Remote Cause" is a term used in law and psychology. Crucially, the study also used the concept of nation-building as its Theoretical Framework. third section outlines a concept for creating standing joint task forces. Revolution Revisited: The Structuralist-Voluntarist Debate, Toward a Fourth Generation of Revolutionary Theory, Hybrid Threats in Nigeria's Boko Haram War. Standing joint task forces : a way to enhance America's warfighting capabilities? J�70"d�ߟA��I8:�v��L3�i �]>$����ʧb � The style used in the study is also historical, descriptive and analytical. This chapter addresses three sets of issues: the primary causes of the Nigerian civil war; its duration and the aftermath; and the risk of recurrence. Nigerian Civil War (London, 1972); and I. Nzimiro, Nigerian Civil War: A Study in Class Conflict (Enugu, 1982). The leading locomotive that keeps the country going was severely affected. Also known as the Biafran War, the Nigerian civil war began in July 1967 and ended in January 1970. Also, there a significant positive correlation was found in self-efficacy with academic motivation and thus the results verified that internal displacement has adversely affected the academic motivation and self-efficacy of students of Swat district to a larger extent as they have been directly affected by the trauma as compared to the students of University of Malakand. It has the characteristics of the two. ]�*�����~������FĶY�E�V{�F7��x~!j�@����!�c~b��hj���FF�K�=�A;�/4U���9����R.7�Ja�ht^?�����B��&����r�sI%�.ק�*�T���mj Since the conflict possesses a dual nature, it follow that the threats it present to Nigeria will also be multeity. The. The role and importance of structural factors versus human agency vary according to the general category to which a particular revolution belongs. Hence the foundations of contemporary patronage system in Ibadan in particular and Nigeria in general could be traced to the political economy of colonial patronage and succeeding neo-colonial system. The work of Ted Robert Gurr, Chalmers Johnson, Neil Smelser, Samuel P. Huntington, and Charles Tilly has dominated the recent study of revolutions. Osaghae and E. Onwudiwe. This conclusion is arrived at after careful and critical evaluation of the significant role revolution played in the formative years of some of the most successful nations within the international environment. Nigeria has been battling insurgency in one form or the other since the 1980s, while terrorism became a major threat to the existence of the state in 2010. Analyses of revolutions in developing countries and in communist regimes have further argued for incorporating these factors and for the inadequacy of structural theories to account for these events. At one time or the other, the activities of such groups have engendered national security problem and political instability. Starting up first as a camp of marauders and later a military settlement after the collapse of the Oyo Empire, Ibadan thereafter emerged a military empire with sovereignty over a large spectrum of Yorubaland by the end of the 19th Century. Stellenbosch University https://scholar.sun.ac.za The Nigerian civil war has never been referred to as a revolution. As a minimum, the US should create standing joint task forces for the most time sensitive missions—such as forcible entry operations to establish a lodgement. endobj Few events alter the socio-economic structure of a country as radically as the convulsions and displacements concomitant with war and political upheaval. Within this milieu a multiplicity of, conflict which is as a result of general scarcity of valuable. The result is an original depiction of fascism as violent, transcendent nation-statism, and a unique perspective differing from other previous theories of fascism. Abstract. Nigerian civil war effects are still present in the life of all citizens. Hello there..! on movement measuring points and conducted a comparative analysis on the data according to each measuring time. %PDF-1.5 the idea of Biafra as a homely space is unsettled to reveal the multiple forms of violence deployed against characters caught at the margins of belligerent positions in order to police belonging, ensure dogmatic solidarity, and to smelt a linear Biafran identity. Theoretical and comparative perspectives. The Nigerian Civil War also known as the Biafran War, started on 6th July 1967 and ended on 15th January 1970, The war resulted from political, economic, ethnic, cultural and religious tensions which preceded Britain's formal decolonization of Nigeria from 1960 to 1963. In 1966, the Niger Delta Vigilantes, under the leadership of Adaka Boro, staged a 12-day revolution in protest against marginalization of the Niger Delta region [6]. 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