major diseases of maize

Maize is also a major source of starch, which can be processed into oils and high fructose corn syrup. Septoria zeicola Plant disease, an impairment of the normal state of a plant that interrrupts or modifies its vital functions. Disease overwinters in diseased crop debris on, or close to, the soil surface; temperatures below 12°C (53.6°F) and above 40°C (104°F) bacterium grows more slowly and may even be killed off. May be found on corn at any time during the growing season. Cochliobolus pallescens [teleomorph] Trap set for adult corn earworm moths (Helicoverpa zea). Rhizoctonia solani Corn leaves discolored by spider mite feeding. It is therefore crucial that a maize producer be able to identify the disease, says Dr Belinda Janse van Rensburg, plant pathologist at the Agricultural Research Council’s Grain Crops Institute. Apart from causing severe damage to the crop, it can also produce a potentially fatal mycotoxicosis in cattle and sheep. Bluish black perithecia of Gibberella zeae superficial near nodes, Small black fungal fruiting bodies visible on corn stalk. Apply fertilizer. The maize association panel used in this study is a collection of inbred lines from public breeding programs worldwide and represents substantial diversity present in maize (11, 19).In our experiments, the panel exhibited extensive variation in quantitative resistance to each of the diseases. Chlorotic mottling which starts from base of leaf and extends towards tip. The disease can be easily identified in the field due to its long, narrow lesions which are unrestricted by veins. Fusarium roseum Macrophomina phaseolina Northern Corn Leaf blight (NCLB): Exserohlium turcicum (asexual stage) Setosphaeria turcica (perfect stage) 3. 1 Bacterial diseases. 2. Small necrotic spots with chlorotic halos on leaves which expand to rectangular lesions 1-6 cm in length and 2-4 mm wide; as the lesions mature they turn tan in color and finally gray; lesions have sharp, parallel edges and are opaque; disease can develop quickly causing complete blighting of leaves and plant death. nebraskensis). Basic requirements Maize is best grown in warm, tropical and sub-tropical regions as it requires warm soils to develop optimally. Spicaria spp. Additional diseases and new information have been included, based on advances in science since the previous edition. Fusarium poae The kernels can be white, yellow, red, purple or black. Caterpillars enter through the side of the ear and feed on developing kernels. Periconia circinata Symptoms. Management. Maize may also be referred to as corn or Indian corn and is believed to originate from Mexico and Central America. corn flea beetle (Chaetocnema pulicaria) adult. The symptom first appears in the middle of leaves and progress outward. Above-ground, plants may be yellow and stunted; roots have obvious lesions and roots are discolored; root cortex will come away when pulled gently, exposing the white stele; can also cause damping-off of seedlings. Symptoms of all maize downy mildew pathogens are similar although may vary depends on cultivar, age and climate. The infected leaves initially shows narrow stripes between the veins. nebraskensis Fusarium merismoides Kernels replaced by smut galls in corn ear. Petch], is responsible for one of the major fungal diseases occurring sporadically in cool and temperate maize cultivation areas . Mucor sp. [anamorph] Zinc deficiency Upper leaves shows broad bands of yellow coloration and later turn pale brown or gray necrosis(dead-spots). B. fusca was recognized as a major pest of cereals when originally described in 1901. Banded leaf and sheath blight disease caused by Rhizoctonia solani f. sp. Scolecosporiella sp. One of the most common insects that cause damage to maize is a corn earworm. Fusarium moniliforme Gray or yellow stripes with irregular margins on leaf surfaces; stripes follow leaf veins and contain characteristic dark green to black water-soaked spots; if infection occurs early then plant may become wilted or withered; it is common to find a crystalline residue on leaves caused by dried bacterial exudate. Leaf damage is usually characterized by ragged feeding, and moist sawdust-like frass near the funnels and upper leaves of the plant. Cutworms have a wide host range and attack vegetables including asparagus, bean, cabbage and other crucifers, carrot, celery, corn, lettuce, pea, pepper, potato and tomato. Bipolaris maydis [anamorph] = Helminthosporium maydis. Leaves develop several small, pale-green lesions which expand along veins producing a conspicuous striping, mainly in the youngest leaves. Disease is spread by wind-borne spores; some of the most popularly grown sweet corn varieties have little or no resistance to the disease. Feeding damage to leaves, tassel and leaf whorls; preferred feeding site is the ear and insect produces extensive excrement at the tip of the ear; younger larvae feed on silks, severing them from the plant; young caterpillars are cream-white in color with a black head and black hairs; older larvae may be yellow-green to almost black in color with fine white lines along their body and black spots at the base of hairs; eggs are laid singly on both upper and lower leaf surfaces and are initially creamy white but develop a brown-red ring after 24 hours and darken prior to hatching. Disease emergence is favored in areas where a corn crop is followed by more corn with no rotastion; severity and incidence of disease is likely die to continuous corn culture with minimum tillage and the use of susceptible hybrids in in the midwestern corn belt of the USA; prolonged periods of foggy or cloudy weather can cause severe Cercopora epidemics. Septoria zeina, Exserohilum turcicum [anamorph] = Helminthosporium turcicum, Bipolaris zeicola [anamorph] = Helminthosporium carbonum, Penicillium chrysogenum Wide host range of pathogen, its ability to survive as sclerotia under adverse environmental conditions and lack of resistant sources are some of the bottlenecks in its management. Common rust (CR) caused by Puccinia sorghi Schwein is one of the major foliar diseases of maize (Zea mays L.) in Eastern and Southern Africa. Leptothyrium zeae Common Rust. The initial symptoms are generally confused with gray leaf spot disease. P. neglectus Dokunmu, D.O. first to fifth expressed by the 31.75 %, 26.50 %, 25.25 %, 19.25 % and 19.25%, farmers, respectively (Table 3). Be aware of symptoms of nutrient deficiency, plants should be a deep green color. Erwinia chrysanthemi pv. Fifty publications on the mapping of maize disease resistance loci were synthesized. Botrytis cinerea Mycosphaerella tassiana [teleomorph], Ascochyta maydis Major diseases: Infections of maize with phytopathogenic and toxinogenic Fusarium spp. nebraskense, Pseudomonas syringae pv. Flecks and rings may be observed on newly formed leav… Phytopathology 96:120-129. The ears can be cooked and eaten from the cob as a vegetable or the kernels can be removed and either eaten as is or used to produce a wide variety of foodstuffs including cereals and flour. Penicillium oxalicum, Pythium arrhenomanes architecture of disease resistance in maize: A synthesis of published studies. Armyworm (Mythimna unipuncta) crawling on a corn leaf. Fusarium sulphureum [anamorph] Mycotoxins produced in rotted basal part of the stem may contribute to forage maize contamination, but usually remain in the stubbles after harvest. Stems of young transplants or seedlings may be severed at soil line; if infection occurs later, irregular holes are eaten into the surface of fruits; larvae causing the damage are usually active at night and hide during the day in the soil at the base of the plants or in plant debris of toppled plant; larvae are 2.5–5.0 cm (1–2 in) in length; larvae may exhibit a variety of patterns and coloration but will usually curl up into a C-shape when disturbed. Mycosphaerella zeae-maydis [teleomorph], P. brachyurus Emergence of disease is favored by high temperatures and extended periods of wet and cloudy weather - seedlings and mature plants are most susceptible to the disease. Quinisulcius acutus The virus is transmitted by aphids and tubers/setts. Cochliobolus eragrostidis [teleomorph] avenae) symptoms. Fungus overwinters in soil and crop debris; disease emergence is favored by high soil moisture and low temperatures leading to low soil oxygen levels. Organic methods of controlling the armyworm include biological control by natural enemies which parasitize the larvae and the application of Bacillus thuringiensis; there are chemicals available for commercial control but many that are available for the home garden do not provide adequate control of the larvae. Doratomyces stemonitis = Cephalotrichum stemonitis Maize crops often have high levels of beneficial insects (predators and parasitoids) that may be harmed by insecticide applications. This disease is frequently found in hot, humid maize-growing areas and was not considered an important pathogen until 1970 when C. heterostrophus race T became prevalent in the U.S. Corn Belt. Pests, weeds and disease in maize crops can severely reduce yield and quality. One of the most important requirements for growing maize is a high quality soil which is deep, fertile and well-draining with a pH between 6.0 and 6.8. It also infects sorghum, wheat, barely, oats, sugarcane and spores of the fungus are also found to associate with seeds of green gram, black gram, cowpea, varagu, Sudan grass, Johnson grass and Teosinte. Corn leaf aphid (Rhopalosiphum maidis) infestation on tassel, Heavy aphid infestation and growth of sooty mold on corn. Heavy infestations can result in curled leaves and stunted plants; honeydew secretions promote growth of sooty mold; corn leaf aphids are blue-green in color, peach aphids are green-yellow in color; aphids may transmit viruses when feeding. Paraphaeosphaeria michotii Flea beetles may overwinter on nearby weed species, in plant debris or in the soil; insects may go through a second or third generation in one year. The disease mainly spread through rain splash and wind. Stalks may also be simply cut off and fall to the side. Cunninghamella sp. Zinc deficiency. It is caused by the hemibiotrophic ascomycete fungus Exserohilum turcicum (teleomorph Setosphaeria turcica) (12). P. hexincisus Leaf damage is usually scattered in rows across the leaf …an immensely accomplished artist with a huge sound and a way of playing that is lyrical and intense without a hint of preciousness. Later stage the lesions looks dirty due to dark gray spores particularly under lower leaf surface. Usually the leaves are narrower and more erect when compare to healthy plants and are covered with a white, downy growth on both surfaces. Close-up view of the corn leaf aphid (Rhopalospiphum maidis). Fusarium episphaeria Nitrogen deficiency The typical symptom of nitrogen deficiency is the plant turns pale green; a ‘V’ shaped yellow coloration on leaves. Plant hybrids resistant to anthracnose; rotating crops and plowing crop debris into soil may help reduce incidence of early season infections. For maize, threatening organisms are stem borers, nematodes, bacteria, viruses, fungi and weeds are some of the organisms that have a negative impact on the maize plant. Disease can occur anywhere where corn is grown but is not usually very damaging. Gibberella cyanogena Phytophthora cactorum Black cutworm (Agrotis ipsilon) larvae may feed on young corn, and pull the stalk down into the ground from below. Aspergillus spp. A.A. Fajinmi, A.O. #Maize has become a #staple #food in many parts of the world, with the total production of maize surpassing that of wheat or rice. Curvularia intermedia Maize stalk borer. You may use , Maize Chlorotic Mottle Virus (MCMoV) + Sugarcane Mosaic Virus (SCMV)/ Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus (WSMV)/Maize Dwarf Mosaic Virus (MDMV), - Small oval or elongated water-soaked spots which enlarge up to 15 mm long appear on leaves, - Lesions develop a tan center and red-brown or orange border, - Lesions may coalesce to form large necrotic(dead) patches, - Severely infected leaves on susceptible hybrids may wither and die, - Fungal fruiting bodies develop on dead tissues and may produce pink or orange spore masses, Click here to go to the topics page to know more about the crop. Grassy weeds also serve as hosts for corn-leaf aphids; peach aphids have a wide host range. Mucor spp. Plants suddenly beginning to lodge (bend to lie along the ground) midway through season; one or more internodes above soil line turning brown, water-soaked, soft and slimy; tissue has foul odor and mushy appearance; Disease is most commonly found in plantations which have overhead irrigation systems or in areas with high rainfall; disease emergence is favored by high temperatures and high humidity. Virus disease pandemics and epidemics that occur in the world’s staple food crops pose a major threat to global food security, especially in developing countries with tropical or subtropical climates. Irregularly shaped holes in leaves and stems; leaves may be shredded; slime trails present on rocks, walkways, soil and plant foliage; several slug species are common garden and field pests; slugs are dark gray to black in color and can range in size from 2.5 to 10 cm (1-4 in). Lesions will appear along the leaf vein. The maize grains, or 'kernels', are encased in husks and total 30–1000 per ear. A manual on the most important pests and diseases of the major food crops grown by smallholder farmers in Africa. may occur throughout the cultivation period. P. christiei Broadly, maize cultivation can be classified into two production environments: (1) traditional maize growing areas, including Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh (BIMARU), and (2) non-traditional maize areas, including Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh (KAP). Till now, a total of 78 (75 fungal and 3 bacterial) species are pathogenic to maize … Maize plants are very heavy feeders and even the most fertile of soils may need to supplemented with nutrients as the plants develop, particularly nitrogen. Spider mite damage to a corn field -- plants in a treated (controlled) field on the left, damaged field on the right. Standard varieties should be planted when the soil has warmed to at least 12.7°C (55°F) and supersweet varieties when the soil reaches 18.3°C (65°F). In developed countries, maize is consumed mainly as second-cycle produce, in the form of meat, eggs and dairy products. Stewart's wilt (Erwinia stewartii) on sweet corn, Leaf symptoms in maize caused by Erwinia stewartii showing long chlorotic streaks with irregular margins. Rhizopus microsporus The most common diseases of field corn in New York include: Anthracnose Leaf Blight. 3. Fungus overwinters on crop debris or in the soil and can survive for several years; fungus usually enters the plant through wounds; application of nitrogen fertilizer increases incidence of disease, while application of phosphorous fertilizer decreases infection. Southern corn leaf blight. B. fusca is distributed from approxi­mately 12 ° N 30 ° S but it does not occur in Madagascar or the Comoros. 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